CÂMPENI is a city with great emotional resonance in the soul of all Romanians, for the unique beauty of its landscape, but especially for the personalities who have deeply marked the history of the Romanian nation, such as the Great Heroes Horea, Cloşca and Crişan, the leaders of the uprising for social and national rights from 1784-1785 and most of all- ”Craisorul Muntilor”, Avram Iancu, who through his exceptional personality made a decisive contribution to the events of the revolutionary years 1848-1849 , leading directly alongside its prefects, the fight of Romanians for social and national freedom.
Documentary, Cimpeni city is attested in 1587, being an act given by the Prince of Transylvania – Sigismund Bathory-, Nicolae Filimon of Cîmpeni, to build a mill at the mouth of the Abrud River in Arieş. After the year 1649 Cimpeni became the capital of the upper mountain area, with the villages Bistra, Albac and Vidra. Interestingly, in the mid-18th century, the city had 5400 inhabitants, being the most populated mountain locality and having even more inhabitants than Alba Iulia and Targu Mureş. The fact that the area was poor, although the immense riches were departing from here to Hungary and Austria, determined that the social struggles of the ”moti” would have a particular intensity in the XVII-XIX century.
The administrative territory includes, except Cîmpeni city, 21 places of belonging: Bonceşti, Borleşti, Boteşti, Certege, Coasta Vascului, Dănduţ, Dealu Bistrii, Dealu Capsei, Dric, Fata Abrudului, Floresti, Furduieşti, Mihoieşti, Motorasti, Over the Valea Bistrii, Poduri, Sorliţa, Tomuşeşti, Valea Bistrii, Valea Caselor, Varsi.
The total area of the city with the surrounding villages is 86.7 KMP, the city is at an altitude of 618 m from the sea level, the number of inhabitants is 8080 at the census of March 2002, the population density is 93.19 loc/KMP, and the number of Households is 2562.
Cimpeni city, the centre of the ”Motilor” Country, is located in the northwest of Alba County, in the middle area of the Apuseni Mountains, in a demounted basin crossed by the Arieş River; It is framed by the Bihorului Mountains in the west, the Great Mountain in the northeast, the Trascăului Mountains and the Metalic Mountains in the southeast. The city is located at a distance of 76 km from the municipality of Alba – Iulia, the county residence, 12 km from Vadu Moților and 5 km from Bistra.
Geographically, it is located in the following geographic coordinates: 23 degrees 03 “north latitude 46 degrees 21” eastern longitude.
The administartive territory is bordered by:
o NE -Măguri Răcătău village
o E – Bistra village
o SE – Roșia Montană village
o SV – Sohodol village
o V – Vidra village
o NV – Albac village
Road access routes across the city’s administrative territory are:
DN 75 Lunca – Turda (166 km – Cîmpeni – km 80).
DN 74A Abrud – Cîmpeni (12 km-Cîmpeni – km 12)
The population of the locality
The stable population of the Cîmpeni city, at the census from March 2002:
DN 75 Lunca – Turda (166 km – Cîmpeni – km 80).
by ETHNICITY: Romanians – 7810; Hungarians – 14; Roma – 248; Germans – 3; Saand – 1; Italians – 2; Not declared – 2.
by RELIGION: Orthodox – 7790; Roman Catholic – 15; Greek Catholic – 120; Reformed – 3; Evangelical – 7; Unitarean – 3; Baptist – 67; Pentecostal – 59; Adventist – 3; Other religions – 8; No religion – 5.
The occupied population of the city of Cîmpeni and activities of the national economy:
Agriculture – 383; Forestry – Wood Exploitation – 69; Fishing and pisciculture – 2; Ind. Extractive – 198; Ind. Processors – 892; Electricity, thermal energy, water – 60; Construction – 112; Trade – 363; Hotels and restaurants – 65; Transport and Storage – 88; Postal and telecommunications – 71; Financial, banking and insurance activities – 39; Real estate transactions – 36; Public administration – 247; Education – 202; Health and social assistance – 260; Other collective service activities – 50; Employees in personal households – 4.
The total occupied population is: 3141.
The connection between the city and the constituent localities is ensured by the municipal roads DC 96 Cîmpeni-Certege, DC 141 from DN 75 Valea Bistrii-Dealu Capsei and DC 142 from DN 74-Poduri. The link to the other localities is ensured on unclassified or forestry roads.
Agriculture – 383; Forestry – Wood Exploitation – 69; Fishing and pisciculture – 2; Ind. Extractive – 198; Ind. Processors – 892; Electricity, thermal, water – 60; Construction – 112; Trade – 363; Hotels and restaurants – 65; Transport and Storage – 88; Postal and telecommunications – 71; Financial, banking and insurance activities – 39; Real estate transactions – 36; Public administration – 247; Education – 202; Health and social assistance – 260; Other collective service activities – 50; Employees in personal households – 4.
The total area of the city of Cîmpeni is 8677 ha of which:
Arable agricultural area 5331 ha;
Grassland 2989 ha;
Hay 1640 ha;
Forestry area 2762 ha;
Other surfaces 584 ha,
31.83% of the city’s surface is occupied by forests.
Morphology of the Territory
The Apuseni Mountains form in the western part of the country a compact area that closes the Transylvanian depression West. The administrative territory of the Cîmpeni city falls within the central area of the Apuseni mountains, in the contact area between the North Apuseni Mountains and the South Apuseni Mountains, being delimited at north by the Gilău Mountains, at west by the Bihor Mountains, and to the south-east of the Metaliferi Mountains. From a morphological point of view it is distinguished by the great variety of relief forms with altitudes ranging from 550 m to the confluence of the Arieşului Valley with the Bistrei Valley and 1597 m the Runcului peak. In this mountainous mass were formed depressions (Cîmpeni-Bistra depression with two stages of relief: The mountain step – over 1000 m altitude, respectively the submountainous stage – between 550 and 1000 m altitude). The hydrographical network has also created other forms of landscape: areas of meadows and terraces, deposits of deluvial deposits and manure cones.The area of the city of Cîmpeni falls within the seismic zone “F”, the value of the coefficient Ks is 0.08 according to the provisions of the “P100-92” norm.
Hydrography of the locality and its related area
Permanent Water Courses
The Arieş River is the main water course that drains the entire hydrographic network in this area. It is formed from the union of two rivers: Arieşul Mic and Arieşul Mare upstream of the locality Mihoieşti. Arieşul Mare has its springs in the Bihorului Mountains at an altitude of 1195 m in the Vârtop saddle, it has a length of 43 km, the basin surface is 479 kmp and an average slope of 7 m/km; And Arieşul Mic has a length of 33 km and the basin surface of 160 kmp. In the confluence area was made an artificial dam that can retain a volume of water of 160 million cubic meters, the created lake partially disrupted the villages of Sorliţa and Boteşti. At the Cîmpeni Hydrometric Point, Arieşul has a multiannual average flow of 11.7 cubic meters per second. Seasonal average leakage varies between 18.1% in summer, fall- 11.1%, spring- 45.1%, winter- 25.7%. There are situations when the leak is abundant or excessive; In these situations, the flow rate rises and can no longer be confined to the major riverbed, giving rise to the floods (the most recent being those of 12 March 1981 and 24-30 December 1985). The causes of this situation are: the high and heavily fragmented relief of the river basin, the high slope 13.6 m/km, the high density of the hydrographic network 0.6 km/KMP over which the sudden air heating has overlapped, the heavy rains fallen on the layer of snow. The Mihoeşti reservoir, although it has a buffer role, has succeeded only in delaying the propagation of the flood.
The main tributaries of the Arieş River are:
-On the right side: The Sohodol River, the area of the basin is 44 KMP, the length is 10 km and the Abrudelului Valley which flows into Arieş in the area of Cîmpeni, with the basin surface equal to 229 kmp and length of 29 km.
-On the left side, right on the hearth of the city of Arieşul receives some important tributaries: Joldoaia, Valea Caselor, Valea Brătinesei (which negatively affects by frequent spills) and Valea Bistrii (basin area is 44 KMP, length is 16 km), rivers Which forms the outfalls in the confluence area with the Arieşul.
The area of Cîmpeni is located in an area of the temperate continental climate, its position in a small depressed valley basin, between the mountains, gives it a microclimate of shelter. Western circulation determines some climatic conditions that correspond to mountainous and submountainous areas generally characterized by a warm season, short summer and another cool, prolonged with abundant rainfall.
The average multiannual temperature is between 6 and 7 degrees C in the southern part of Cîmpeni city and 3-4 degrees C in the northern part on the height of Mount Mare. The type of climate characteristic of this area shows the monthly average temperatures higher than 10 degrees C in 1-4 months per year, and the temperatures of the coldest month, rarely descend below – 30 degrees C. The average temperature in January is – 4 degrees C, and the month of July + 16 degrees C. The average date of the first frost production is 1 October, and the last frost is 1 May.
Atmospheric precipitation is characterized by a richer regime, the multiannual environments being in the 700-800 mm Cîmpeni, and on the heights up to 900-1000 mm. The maximum precipitation is achieved at the end of spring (May-June), and the minimum The end of Winter (February). The snow layer is persistent 50-60 days a year and has a thickness of 50-60 cm.
The wind is a climatic element that reflects most faithfully the overall circulation of the atmosphere and the milking of air masses after the large relief units. In Cîmpeni, the dominant directorates are the west and southwest of about 10%, with the average speed being 4-5 mm per second.
Vegetation and fauna
One of the elements of the natural frame that reflects most faithfully the altitudinal variation of the relief is the vegetation that is placed on an altitude of about 1000 m. The vegetation specific to the area is the mountain and falls into two floors:
The subalpine floor – which corresponds to the northern part of the territory and the upper limit of the spruce, consisting of jnevitn (Pinus mugo), Dwarf Juniper (Juniperus communis), the afin (Vaccinium myrtillus), the Merinor (Vaccinium Vitis idaea), and as Herbs: Rock Grass (Agrostos rupestris), red well (Festuca rubra), Teposica (Nardus stricta).
The mountain floor where two steps are distinguished:
– Sub-floor of Spruce Spruce (Plicea exclsa), the White tree (Abies alba), the mountain Paltinum (Aces pseudoplatanus), the mountain scorer (Sorbus Acuparia), the Birch (Betula verrucosa), and in the meadows we meet the red and teposic Peacock.
– The lower-floors of the jaws, the inferior of beech (honeycomb) often blended with the coniferous upper subfloors, then the Elm (Ulmus Montana), the mountain Paltinum (Acer pseudoplatanus), the ash (Fraxinus Excelsior), and the grasses vegetation Developed instead of forests is the wind grass (Agrostis tennis), the red and Teposic Peacock. This type of vegetation corresponds to species from the animal world such as the brown bear, the wolf, the deer, the rabbit, the fox, and in the waters of the ichthological fauna represented by trout and lipane.